What is Technical Writing?

Updated on December 22nd, 2021
What is Technical Writing?

Technical writing is documenting complex, technical processes that are difficult to comprehend. It falls under the broad umbrella of technical communication, a sub-field of business communication.

According to the Society for Technical Communication (STC), a professional association, "technical communication" is any form of communication that ticks the following boxes:

  • Communicating about topics that are technical or have a very specialized focus
  • Done by leveraging some form of technology, like web pages, social media, etc.
  • Provide instructions to a clearly-defined audience through technical content

Compared to most forms of writing, technical writing is supposed to have a much more targeted audience. STEM fields such as computer science/information technology, engineering, biochemistry, medical sciences, physics, and finance greatly need technical communication. 

This form of writing can have different goals, including, but not limited to:

  • Unambiguously defining a process
  • Explaining how to use a tool/machine
  • Discussing the findings of a research
  • Analyzing trends and forecasting something

The technical documents, videos, and other content, which are products of this type of writing, take many shapes and forms, such as user manuals, reports, FAQs, and wiki pages. 

If you're interested in learning more about what is technical writing via video, then watch below. Otherwise, skip ahead.

There is no universal style guide for technical writing. The formatting, writing style, tone, and level of difficulty are up to the organization or the person developing the content as well as the audience. 

However, the goal for any technical writing is the same: to be as unambiguous as possible when defining a technical process or sharing the results of your findings. 

If you're interested in learning more about the technical writing role and landing your dream technical writing job, then check out our Technical Writing Certification Course.

Technical Writing Certifications

What Technical Writing Isn't

Any form of content that does not provide technical information in a meaningful, unambiguous, and targeted way is not considered technical writing.

Sticking with the conditions above can help provide some level of clarity. Still, it often becomes challenging to draw the line between technical writing and other forms of writing even then.

To be more specific, here are some common examples of content that do not fall under "technical writing":

  • Regular blog posts with non-technical content (on house decoration, management, or a personal journey)
  • Any content explaining a technical concept when the audience doesn't have to apply that knowledge in a professional setting
  • Promotional or entertaining content shared on social media

To a layperson, these distinctions may not seem that significant. However, to a technical writer or someone interested in pursuing this career, it's critical to know what the job entails and what it doesn't.

7 Common Types of Technical Writing

Historically speaking, technical writing was only limited to content developed for audiences associated with science and engineering.

Today, it encompasses a broad range of fields.

Furthermore, traditionally, technical writing only referred to reports, journals, and manuals. But as technology penetrated the different walks of life, the content took many shapes, such as explainer videos, infographics, etc.

To gain knowledge, spending too much time learning about the different media used to deliver the content isn't essential. What's important is to understand the types of technical writing, distinguished based on the goals they're meant to accomplish.

That being said, here are some of the most common types of technical writing:

Technical Documentation

The use of a technical product (like heavy-duty machinery, a handy tool, etc.) requires clear instructions on how to use it.

Since the audience of such products includes engineers, mechanics/technicians, and scientists, they must understand their technicalities, especially if they're not used to using them. Even the smallest error can potentially send thousands of hard-earned dollars down the drain.

Technical documentation is needed to communicate those instructions and ensure that the user doesn't make a fatal error. This is the most common type of technical writing and exists in the form of instruction manuals, maintenance checklists/guidelines, references, and engineering specifications, among others.

The content for software documentation has to be as straightforward and crystal-clear as possible to ensure the end-user comprehends it. 

Additionally, technical documentation can also be in the form of a training video, provided that the narration or captions meet technical writing requirements.

Instructions for the End-User

This form of technical writing is very closely related to the previous one, as it pretty much accomplishes the same goal – to help the end-user.

The only distinctions between the two are target audiences and their intended products. 

Unlike traditional technical documentation, these instructions aren't for highly complex, industrial-level machinery or equipment but day-to-day gadgets and software used by ordinary consumers and business professionals.

Examples of technical writing include the instruction manuals we get with our brand new smartphones, handbooks for laptops, and instruction videos for enterprise software.

The goal is to minimize tickets/requests for the customer service department, as the users will have everything they need to set up and get started with their product.

Technical Writers' Reports

Technical report writing encompasses a wide range of products.

In technical writing, these reports mainly refer to the documentation that keeps track of complex processes (such as a maintenance report) and product history.

They may also include financial/feasibility reports. However, some prefer placing them under a completely different category known as "business writing."

Technical reports follow strict writing and formatting rules that are determined by the organization preparing them. In some cases, those rules are set forth by an external party in case auditing is required.

Unlike most technical write-ups, these reports inform an internal audience (like a board of directors or a committee). In the case of feasibility reports, an external party, such as a potential investor, may view them.

Policies and Procedures

Every company has a set of policies and pre-determined formal procedures that the employees must follow to ensure productivity, create a safe working environment, and reduce liability risks.

Typically, technical writers prepare these policies under the supervision of a compliance officer or another member of the senior management.

Since they're for employees across the company (or a specific team), they have to communicate expectations in a very straightforward way.

Doing so can help avoid potential lawsuits and uphold an organization's reputation.

Business Plans and Proposals

Traditionally, technical writing didn't encompass business plans.

However, due to the extensive researching, number crunching, and laser-focused targeting that it entails, experts began considering it a part of technical writing.

For those with little or no experience with business writing, a business plan is a comprehensive document detailing the various strategies of a venture created for people who would be willing to invest.

A typical business plan includes details of the following:

  • Business Introduction/Elevator pitch
  • Business model
  • Unique selling points
  • Consumer research 
  • Competitor research
  • Marketing strategy
  • Financial projections/Feasibility report

A professionally-written business proposal can help an aspiring entrepreneur bag the capital they need to launch their venture.

Case Studies

A case study is a detailed documentation of a project, event, or process. Its purpose is to provide guidance, insights, or proof of something.

Case studies can be used for business and scientific or engineering purposes and can be on many topics. However, all case studies have one thing in common–they leverage data to identify patterns.

White Papers

White papers are authoritative documents that present solutions to a complex issue.

Organizations publish them to discuss their philosophies on different matters for defined audiences. The goals of a white paper could include:

  • To persuade the reader to adopt or invest in a particular solution (like a software, machine, or a crypto-currency)
  • To establish brand's authority within the industry

Although not necessary, creating a white paper also entails engaging in graphic designing.

Technical Writing Skills: How To Create Technical Writing

There are no strict rules for developing technical content. However, there are certain best practices that all technical writers should adhere to.

Here are the steps you should take to develop a technical piece of content:

  1. Create (or Refer to) Personas

The first step in technical writing is to describe who you're writing the content for clearly.

That's because every type of technical content needs to be laser-focused on the audience it's intended for, as it helps choose the appropriate tone, select the right words, and drive the message home.

This entails creating detailed personas, including the age, occupation, level of education, and goals of the intended audience.

Keep Focused

The next and perhaps most important step in technical writing is conducting extensive research and gathering data.

This involves scouring the web to collect relevant information.

Furthermore, technical writers must collaborate with other organizational stakeholders for highly complex projects despite being subject matter experts. This ensures that whatever information they present is a hundred percent accurate. 

Use References

This doesn't apply to all forms of technical writing.

However, providing an ample amount of references for certain technical content – especially when sharing figures, making a claim, etc. – is recommended.

Doing so adds credibility to your content.

Speak Plain English

Last but not least, it's important to use internationally-acceptable English when writing in this language.

This especially applies to content that people may read from other corners of the world.

For instance, if you're a technical writer from the US, developing content for an international audience, avoid using local phrases/idioms that might confuse the readers.

Become a Technical Writer

In the US, technical writers are well-compensated, and rightly so. However, aspiring technical writers might face some trouble figuring out how to proceed with this career path.

Here's a quick roadmap that anyone can use to launch a glorious career in technical writing:

  • Seek Relevant Education/Training – Before worrying about anything else, make sure that you have the right background and relevant skillset for the job. Belonging to a technical field is a huge plus, but not mandatory. In any case, start by investing in a technical writing course.
  • Start Soaking Technical Content – Good technical writing rests on strong research. To become better at what you do, start consuming the type of content you're interested in. Figure out how the writers present their thoughts (and what you can do to improve them).
  • Develop and Sharpen In-Demand Skills – Naturally, you should be a great technical communicator (i.e., you should enjoy explaining complex concepts in easy words). To that end, strong communication skills are mandatory. Experience with document design/graphic designing is also a huge plus.
  • Develop a Portfolio – Practice makes perfect. Put your technical writing skills to use and start developing technical content as a hobby. Additionally, create an online portfolio that you can instantly share with recruiters.

Finally, start applying for technical writing jobs. Connect with recruiters from top tech companies like Microsoft, Google, and Apple on LinkedIn and start creating a name for yourself in the industry.

Final Thoughts on Technical Writing

Technical writing is a sought-after skill, the demand of which will continue to grow in the years to come. If you have a knack for writing, talking about difficult, complex concepts, and understanding certain subjects' nuances, you can potentially build a lucrative career in this field.


If you are new to technical writing and are looking to break-in, we recommend taking our Technical Writing Certification Course, where you will learn the fundamentals of being a technical writer, how to dominate technical writer interviews, and how to stand out as a technical writing candidate.